In Britain and the USA about 50% of non-specific urethritis (NSU) is due to Chlamydia trachomatis types D to K.1–4 In England and Wales NSU is the commonest sexually transmitted disease: 74,000 cases were reported by venereology clinics in 1976. A high percentage of female sexual partners of males with chlamydial urethritis have Chlamydia in the cervix and urethra.2 4 5 Rectal2 6 7 and throat8 cultures may also be positive in females and homosexual males.7 It is not surprising that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae are commonly found together in both male and female genital tracts. Concurrent infection with Chlamydia was found in 22–65% of reported gonococcal cases.3 9 10 C. trachomatis is a major cause of non-gonococcal epididymitis in young men.11 Its importance in the urethral syndrome and abacterial pyuria is unclear.12 The results of chlamydial cultures from the fallopian tube and of serology suggest that C. trachomatis is a major cause of acute salpingitis.13 14
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