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Pen injectors for insulin

Abstract

Over the last 10 years, intensified insulin regimens have been developed in the hope that improved glycaemic control will help prevent diabetic complications. The regimens involve either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) via a motorised pump1 or, more commonly, multiple subcutaneous injections. The multiple injection regimens usually consist of a short-acting insulin before meals with long or medium-acting insulin at bedtime (‘basal-bolus’ regimens). Pen-like injectors, which simplify the transport and injection of insulin, were developed to make these multiple dose regimens more acceptable and convenient. They are also increasingly being used with twice daily, mixed insulin regimens.

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