The use of faeces for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases was described in 4th century Chinese medicine for the treatment of severe diarrhoea.1 More recently there has been renewed interest in this unconventional biological therapy, particularly for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to a lesser extent inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Faecal microbiota transplantation† (FMT) involves the introduction of enteric bacteria from the faeces of healthy donors in order to restore a healthy balance of bacteria in the gut.2 In March 2014, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) issued guidance on the use of FMT for the treatment of recurrent CDI that has failed to respond to antibiotics and other treatments.2 Here we review the use of FMT in CDI and IBD.
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