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â–¾ Botulinum toxin and dystonias


Blepharospasm is a form of focal dystonia in which there are sustained or frequent bilateral contractions of the orbicularis oculi muscles, causing repetitive blinking (and even virtual blindness). Benign hemifacial spasm (which is unilateral and classified separately from the dystonias) also causes blinking and distressing spasms of the facial muscles. We last reviewed them 3 years ago.1

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