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Drugs in the peri-operative period: 3 - Hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy
  • Relevant BNF sections:, 7.3


Women taking combined hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism, compared to non-users. Surgery itself carries a risk of thromboembolism, the incidence of which varies with the nature of the procedure. In this article, the third in our series on drug therapy in the peri-operative period,1,2 we review the thromboembolic effects of oral contraceptives and HRT and consider how these affect management around the time of surgery.

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  • Relevant BNF sections:, 7.3

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