Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with frequent exacerbations have high levels of anxiety and depression, significantly impaired health status and faster disease progression.1,2 Exacerbations are also the most common cause of emergency respiratory admissions to UK hospitals3 and are costly to health services.2 Here we assess whether and how drug and non-drug interventions can help in preventing exacerbations.
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